Mallorquins, or Caballo Mallorquins, are a rare breed of
horse indigenous to the island of Majorca in the Balearic Islands, from which
it takes its name. They were first identified in 1985 by the Patronato para las
Razas Autoctonas de Mallorca ('authority for the autochthonous breeds of
Mallorca'). Mallorquin horses are listed in the Catalogo Oficial de Razas de
Ganado de Espana in the group of autochthonous breeds in danger of extinction. Their
status was listed in 2007 as critical by the Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations. In 2005 the number of Mallorquin horses recorded in the
stud book was 247, but a census conducted by the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y
Medio Rural y Marino in 2003 identified only 172. In some English-language
publications, the Mallorquin and Menorquín are not listed, but horses of the
Balearic Islands are merged into a grouping called the Balearic horse or
Balearic pony. However, authoritative sources, including the Government of the
Balearic Islands, the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Medio Rural y Marino of
Spain and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, make it
clear that they are two separate breeds.
For a horse to be registered Mallorquin it must be only
black. There may be white facial markings, however, no white on the legs.
Female horses must be at least 14.2 hands and males 15 hands. Their head is
refined with a convex profile. Their neck is arched, their mane thick and
short. Their bone structure is refined.